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KITCHEN :

COOKING AREA IS THE PLACE WHERE MOST OF THE TIME OF THE INDIAN HOUSEWIVES PASSES. COOKING FOOD BY OWN HANDS IS VERY IMPORTANT CULTURE OF INDIAN WOMEN.

EARLIER KITCHENS WERE LOCATED AT THE REAR OF THE HOUSE OR IN SECULEDED AREAS AWAY FROM THE COMMON AREAS. NOW THE CONCEPTS HAVE CHANGES KITCHEN ARE ALSO PLACED IN WAY EVERY PERSON ENTERING GETS THE VIEW OF THE INTERIORS OF KITCHEN AND LADIES HAVE FULL VISIBILITY TO THE MAIN ENTRANCES WHILW WORKING IN THE KITCHEN.

 
Kitchen needs to be planned nicely and finished in well planned way and needs to create an attraction to the visitors and inmates.

IF THE WAY TO A MAN’S HEART IS through his stomach, a woman’s heart can be won by way of her kitchen; give her a modern kitchen and she’ll love you for life. Researchers have found that on a daily basis, the mistress of the kitchen may walk to and from the dining table to her hearth more than 30 times, pull out drawers and open up cabinet doors over80 times, and undertake more than 50 activities such as making dough, chopping vegetables, and preparing salads etc. Clearly, if kitchen are to be sold well it is essential for traders to know who their target buyer is and what the key considerations of a buying decision are.
 
Principles:

Kitchen layouts are based of a work triangle that incorporates the fundamental activities of cooking, cleaning, and food preparation and storage. And to correspond with workflow, its perspective needs to consider five types of storage zones: consumables, cleaning, preparation and cooking. For right-handed users the zones should be arranged clockwise and anticlockwise for left-handed users.

Consumables: Items that are consumed over a short period of time and replenished on a regular basis. Foodstuff such as bread and cereals, refrigerated food, mild and butter etc is stored here.

Non-consumables: Crockery, cutlery, glassware etc are stored here.

Cleaning: Detergents, washing liquids, cleaning material, waste bin etc. are stored here.

Preparation:Equipment need for the main food preparation such as kitchen knives, chopping boards, mixing bowls, measuring jugs, kitchen scales etc.

Cooking: Pots, pans with lids, banking trays, cake tins etc, all can to be stored in this zone.

 

Layout

There are least six types of kitchen layout, which together can be classified as simple (in-line, L kitchen, the galley) and complex (the G, island, U kitchen). The U layout is best suited for optimal path routes in the kitchen, followed by the island, while in-line and L layouts.

Once the layout has been determined (which also depends on architectural limitations), the imaginary work triangle needs to be factored in before positioning equipment and storage facilities. An effective work triangle allows cooking, cleaning, and food preparation and storage to be undertaken efficiently and easily, by keeping three key appliances – fridge, oven/hob, and sink/ dishwasher within easy yet unobstructed reach of each other.

Dos & Don’ts

Kitchen planning is as much a science as it is an art, and aspects like space, distance and ergonomic factors (stress on the body) should always be taken into account.

Main work area – should usually be located between the sink and stove, and be at least 90 cm wide.

Accessibility – drawers and cupboards should be located around appliances so that access to everyday kitchenware and utensils is easy.
Corners & drawers – to access under counter corners use bi-folding doors; don’t place drawers next to corners which potentially obstruct the corner and the adjacent storage.

Corners & appliances – avoid placing under-counter appliances like dishwashers and ovens in a corner; this can create potential dead space as well as obstruct access to other cupboards and drawers when their doors are open.

Power points – there should be plenty of power points at various appliance locations, along with isolating switches (circuit breakers) that are easily accessible.

Refrigerator – the largest appliances in the kitchen should be positioned adjacent to other tall cabinetry, and kept separate from oven and hob to prevent potential damage that may be caused by temperature clashes.

Drawers & roll-outs – these are better than shelves, since they reduce stress on the body, and require less bending and kneeling.

Hob & oven – both should be located in a place such that they do not consume primary work surfaces; but preferably away from windows.

Oven - an eye-level oven is safer with kids in the house, and saves from back problem; it should be placed next to other tall cabinetry and on a heat-resistant surface.

Dishwasher – should be located near the sink, to allow for easy loading, unloading and storage.

The OWAS Method

The Ovako Working Posture Analysis System demonstrates the level of ergonomic stress a person undergoes during kitchen activities, and these are indicated by different colours.

    Red: very severe stress on the body

    Orange: severe stress

    Yellow: light stress

    Blue: no stress on the body

The red and orange ergonomic model demonstrates the stresses involved in retrieving items from a base cabinet with doors and shelves, in a kneeling and bent position.

The yellow ergonomic model, which is accessing a fill extension, shows a significantly better posture. The maximum stress level is only yellow, even when removing items from the bottom drawer. This activity has none of the awkwardness and strain associated with accessing items from static shelves.

The damaging actions of kneeling and bending can be avoided by using drawers and roll-outs instead of shelves. Moreover, new drawer technology is not
only providing complete silence but also an emotional experience in the closing of drawers and pull-outs, irrespective of size of the unit or the weight
it carries.

 KITCHEN:

The efficient kitchen is one which may not be big in size but depends upon how it is laid down. Although many people want something larger, not realizing that small kitchens have plenty of potential if a right layout is worked out.

When kitchen is planned it should have consideration of having enough food storage,the preparation, the cooking and the serving area as practical and energy saving as possible. Cooking a meal follows a predictable style

The three main areas of activity are –

• Food storage: Fridge and food cupboards

• Preparation Area: Worktops and Sink

• Cooking : Oven and Gas

Many expert interior designers believe that most sensible layout should follow this pattern:

Fridge-Worktop-Sink-Worktop-Cooker-Oven.

All this should be arranged if possible from left to right in unbroken sequence.

Installing a kitchen in hotel or houses can be a major project and involve long term investment. Therefore, it is important to spend time carefully assessing needs and requirements while designing the kitchen. It requires detailed analysis of careful assessment of potential of space and thorough investigation of merchandise available to implement our ideas.

The points mentioned below should be kept in mind whenever designing of Kitchen is undertaken:

Requirements and Necessities:

What is your idea of a dream kitchen?

How many people tend to use the kitchen at the same time?

Who uses the Kitchen and how old are they?

Does anyone using the kitchen have special needs? For example, is cook left handed?

Is anyone in family elderly or disabled?

If hotel kitchen, then how many variety foods to be prepared and quantity produced at one time.

Eating:

How often and what kind of meals are taken in Kitchen and for how many people?

• Breakfast only

• Snacks

• All meals

What kind of eating facilities are needed/preferred?

• A table for sit down meals

• A fold down table

• A bar with stool

• A serving window to dining room

Activities in the Kitchen:

What takes place in the kitchen, apart from storing preparing and cooking food?


• Eating

• Laundry

• Homework

• Entertaining

Budget:

How much money is available to spend on your Kitchen?

How is finance to be provided?

If there are plans to move within few years then temptation to overspend should be avoided.

Style:

What style you aim to create?

What colour schemes appeal?

Choice of colours will be influenced by the type of light rooms receive as well as personal choice. Some people find cool colours more relaxing to work with; while others respond more positively to warm colours like red.

What type of flooring do you prefer?

What wall coverings are suited?

Space/Structure:

Can you work within the space available?

Can you find ways to provide more space?

Can you take space from other areas or rooms less used?

Would removal of wall between kitchen and dining area solve purpose?

Can you re-site kitchen in larger room?

How much work surface will you need and what type is more preferred?

Appliances:

What kind of fuel do you plan to use?

Gas

Electric

Solid fuel

A combination

What kind of cooking appliances are used?

What combination of fridge and freezer are to be used?

Is frozen food more in use?

If so, then larger freezer provision to be thought of:

Sinks:

What arrangement of sink is best suited to needs/space/budget?

A single sink

A double sink

An extra half sinks

Is dishwasher user?

Is there storage space near the sink for cleaning materials, mops and buckets, tea, towels etc.?

Storage:

How much food and equipments must the kitchen contain?

How to store utensils, pots and pans?

Where are crockery, cutlery and glassware items stored? (In kitchen or dining room)

All these things help to design cupboard needed for storage.

Lighting and Ventilation:

What kind of lighting is preferred or suited?

Strips of spotlights

Electrified tracks

Down lights

Special under-cupboard lighting

Is there adequate ventilation in the Kitchen?

Exhaust fan

Electric Chimney

An accurate plan with everything worked out shall save frowning, when it comes to fitting a kitchen. The first stage is to get an accurate, scaled floor plan of room on graphs paper as studied earlier. Measuring the kitchen accurately is most important step. Make a list of all appliances that are to be installed along with their dimensions. Remember to allow space for pipes wires and ventilation.

Cupboard Units

Wall cupboards are almost 300 mm deep while floor units are 500 mm to 600 mm deep. Most appliances are usually 600 mm in width, therefore same size cupboards should be planned and designed.

Wall units should be positioned at 450 mm above at work surface. If the wall unit is lower then to see work surface every time, you will need to bend down. If wall unit is higher then the top shelve, it may be difficult to reach.

Tall units should not be placed in middle of a run of units as they may hinder the work surface. The space between wall unit and base unit can be used for hanging utensils or napkins.

The standard height for a work surface should be around 900 mm. the changes can be done depending upon height of the person who will work in the kitchen.

Oven:

It should be place at least 300 mm away from corner, so that doors can open easily. Never position oven within the radius of an inward –opening door.

Dishwasher:

It is best to place dishwasher close to sink, for convenient water and waste and waste connections. Avoid placing dishwasher near corners, as it needs plenty of space to open the door to its full extent for loading and unloading.

Cooking Gas:

It should have free working area space of 300 mm on both sides. It should never be placed near windows with curtains. Do not place gas under wall units.

Fridge and Freezer:

Allow at least 100 mm between hinge side and adjoining wall or units so that the door can be opened wide enough to clean or remove shelves.

Sink:

The size of sink you choose should depend upon how big the household is and whether there is a dishwasher. The bowl should be big enough to cope with bulky utensils.

Storage:

Use wall cupboards for dry goods such as flour, sugar, rice, biscuits etc. always provide separate spec for keeping cleaning materials. Place drawers to
keep knives, strainers, peelers, spoons and forks. Separate place provision under the sink should be provided fro dustbins. Try not to place heavy items
in wall units as they are awkward to lift down. In the cooking area, there is need fro deep drawers or double floor cupboards for posts and pans, baking
dishes and so on, and wall racks and deep drawers for cooking utensils.

 

 Glassware

Glass is a man made substance which is produced by processing various chemicals at a very high temperature. Glassware is made in many different shapes an patterns. Elegant glassware collection in homes and hotels can add a tough of class to your interiors; it not only projects your taste but also presents your image without saying a word.

The topic on glassware is an important topic for not only housewives and interior lovers, but is of utmost use to students of Hotel Management. Before purchasing glassware, it is important to know the types and qualities available in the market.

Crystal glass

– It contains oxide of lead and has good optical qualities. Cut crystal glassware is enjoyed by wine lovers.

Soda lime glass

– It is a law priced glass. It is based on sand, soda ash and limestone. It is a good all purpose glass. It can be plain or opal in colour.

Lead glass

– It is sturdy and elegant. Lead glass is full lead crystal and are often used for luxury drinking glasses.

Caring for Glass:

Glass is decorative delicate stuff therefore needs to be handled with caution and care.

Always wash glasses separately to avoid chipping. Use plastic bowl or rubber mat in sink and stand them properly to dry.

Wipe with soft cloth and then store. Rim is most delicate part of glass.

Clean carvings and patterns with soft brush.

If glasses stick together, pour cold water in inner glass and hold outer glass in warm water.

Remove lime deposits with tea leaves soaked in vinegar.

Glassware should always be washed by hand.

Large varieties of styles are available in market. Students of Interior Design and Hotel Management must know the kinds of styles and options available to users.

STYLES OF GLASSWARE:

These glasses are generally used for Burgundy and similar wines, which need space to release its aroma.

Red Wine

Hock glasses have long stem. Hock glasses are normally used for wines from Rhine, the Mosel and Alasace.

        Hock

 

White wine glasses have a stem. Chilled wines can be made warm, if hand clamped around the bowl of glass. The smell is released easily from swirling liquid.

                White Wine

These are glasses with wide shallow bowl which became popular in 1920’s Storing these glasses need particular care, give them plenty of space to avoid chipping his glass is like a tumbler and made of uncut, full crystal. These glasses are fat, heavy glasses with thick base.

Champagne Saucer

Whisky

The style of these glasses is round bodied. Balloon shaped with short stem. Such glasses allow the warmth of hand to release the spirit’s aroma. These glasses should not be filled to the brim.

Brandy

Long glass is a plain tall glass. These glasses are common house hold used glassware. These are found in common Indian homes used for hard or soft drinks.

Cocktail glasses are available in plain and pattern glass. These glasses are designed to make mixed drinks with a spirit base.

 

Bear mugs are made from thick glass and are heavy. Mugs are commonly seen in beer bars ad juice houses. Glass is poor conductor of heat. So it holds back the cooling.

Ice buckets are made from uncut glassware. Lead crystal ice bucket comes complete with a pair of stainless steel tongs.

 

 

This type and style of set is made from lead crystal. These sets can be bought to complement your existing glassware.

CHINA & OVERWARE:

Good profiled crockery collection is not only fun but also adds to pretty collections of china wares. Nice colored and profiled crockery has been always centre of attraction.

The China is called China because Chinese potters started work on the item in 9th century. It was introduced to Europe by Italian travelers, who described it as ‘porcellana’ in their language what means smooth, white cowrie shell. But bone china is purely British phenomenon, invented in 18th century by Thomas Frye of Bow, in London. He discovered that adding bone ash to porcelain clay makes it extra white. This technique is used till date.

Two types of clay are used in today’s crockery. Porcelain is made from China clay, which is primary clay and unmixed with other minerals. Second clay, like that used in earthen ware, have been moved from their source and mixed with other minerals and substances. This processing makes them more elastic but less durable. As impurities reduce strength, bone china is not as strong as china or porcelain. Generally speaking the higher are quality of china or more elastic but less durable. As impurities reduce strength, bone china is not as strong as china or porcelain. Generally speaking the higher the qualities of china or more bone ash present in bone china, the more expensive the outlay. Price is also governed by pattern. The cost of hand painted china tends to be more as it reflects the time and energies employed by the skilled craftspeople in making it.

Nowadays it is more common to apply patterns by screen printing, in which enameled colours are built up to make a pattern.

It is important for Hotel industry to choose china patterns and ovenware in relation to overall décor type of food your are likely to serve, kind of guests who pour in (region) and most important the lasting impression hotel wants to emboss on minds of people whom you host.

Patterns tend to fall into three main categories: traditional, classics and modern, Traditional styles are well known and much loved designs. They work equally well as wall plates and can pose as antique pieces of style.

Classic patterns are long lasting as they are simple and pain which means they do not go out of fashion soon or clash with food you serve or disturb your decoration. These styles work well for daily use or as a special dinner service.

Modern styles are designed to bring the lasts fashion trends and therefore are best for daily or frequent use as the patterns may not be so appealing a few years later.

Original china can go straight from the oven to table, so there is less worry about putting the food in market. The materials are usually earthenware and stoneware which can be glazed or unglazed. Stoneware is made under high temperatures than earthenware, which makes it harder and bit more expensive but it is versatile and can go straight from freezer to microwave. Earthenware retains heat and is ideal for slow cooking.

A full dinner service should consist of dinner plates, side plates saucers casseroles, meat platters, a cake or bread and butter plate, a gravy boat, a soup tureen, soup dishes, an open jug and a full tea service.

The kitchen can be in any shape or size, depending on the architecture of the building. But there are only few layouts that work within guidelines of a working triangle. If designer works on these guidelines then result would be a pleasure some working space. The kitchens can be single line, L-shaped, U-shaped or parallel styled.

KITCHEN REMODELLING:

Planning, remodeling and designing a kitchen includes taking a few decisions:

You may choose from fitted kitchens that occupy less space and have more storage space or a freestanding kitchen that can be moved easily and taken to any place with you.

• Lifestyle of the family - A single person that cooks rarely will prefer a minimalist's kitchen while a kitchen for a large family that is used quite often throughout the day needs a lot of storage space, groceries, cutlery and crockery and all the kitchen tools, equipments and appliances along with the sitting area for the family dinner gatherings.

• Seating area - A small kitchen may accommodate a small breakfast table while a big kitchen may have the dinner table set to cater to the whole family. You may also use a part of your dining/living room as the kitchen to make more space for the seating arrangement.

• Placing of refrigerator - Fridge should never be placed near the cooking hob as the appliances may not work properly. The ideal placement of refrigerator is between the entrance of the kitchen and the cooking area where all the members of the house can easily access it.

• Kitchen Shapes - Efficient kitchen is one that allows easy movement and enough space for sink; counter for food preparation, cutting and chopping; and cooking area. The most popular shapes are galley kitchens, two-way galley kitchens, L-shaped kitchens and U-shaped kitchens.

• Galley kitchens are the ones where all working areas are next to each other, have less storage space and require lot of movement. • Two-way galley kitchens provides for storage space below the worktop, cupboards are placed on the opposite wall for easy access to minimize walking movements, is more compact and must have enough between the two galleys to avoid bumping.

• L-shaped kitchens provide more workspace and storage area, walking distance is minimized and corners of the kitchen can serve as the dining area.

• U-shaped kitchens have the most workspace and storage area, has less floor area and are not for claustrophobics. In case, your kitchen seems too small, you may use one of the legs as a breakfast bar or provide for an island counter instead. Decide on the kitchen layout, starting with the placement of sink, preparation area and hob, the placement of fridge and the service points for water, electricity and gas.

• Ventilation points and daylight should be kept in mind too.

COLOUR CHOICES:

Creative use of colors can result in a budget-friendly kitchen décor that can stimulate your hunger and funk-up your surroundings.

Here are some hit tips for you:

• Painting the kitchen cabinet in most innovative ways can add splash of colors to the kitchen.

• Installing new tiles in trendy designs and deep tones all over the kitchen or above the kitchen counters can make cleaning and wiping the area easier and make kitchen look quite beautiful too.

• A monochromatic color scheme with matching cabinet, countertop and wall colors can be flunked up by creating a focal point in the kitchen in bold contrasting colors and stenciled motifs.

• Installing curtains that easily washable in decorative patterns and colors can also make your kitchen look much prettier.

• Do not overlook the fact that colors look different in different lighting systems and fluorescent or incandescent lighting may affect the hue of your kitchen entirely in a different fashion.

• These days, recessed and cabinet lighting plan in the kitchen rather than the uniform lighting plan.

• You may add a dramatic touch to your kitchen décor by using light and shadows to compliment the kitchen colors and a spotlight above your cooking area and dining area may actually look like a studio kitchen.

• Besides the cabinetry, ceiling, floor and window coverings, moldings and trim, there are other design elements too such as chandeliers and designer lights, knobs and pulls, hanging plates and pot racks.

• Hand painted furnishings and accessories can also be used for the kitchen décor.